By Amanda J. Jenkins, Y.H. Caplan
Even supposing the specimen of selection within the US drug trying out is urine, and serum in medical drugs, curiosity has lately grown within the use of different matrices as drug checking out media. This booklet offers researchers and forensic toxicologists with a handy basic textual content summarizing the nation of information this present day. Chapters concentration particularly at the software of those practices to medicinal drugs of abuse. The updated details supplied is complemented with thorough references.
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Extra info for Drug Testing in Alternate Biological Specimens (Forensic Science and Medicine)
Fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline, which produce peak concentrations in breast milk at 7–10 h, are reported to deliver less drug to the infant than either fluoxetine or citalopram (36). Stimulant drugs that are basic are particularly susceptible to ion trapping and accumulation in breast milk. Following a therapeutic dosing regimen for narcolepsy, amphetamine concentrations in four milk samples were in the range Specimens of Maternal Origin: Amniotic Fluid and Breast Milk 15 55–138 μg/L. These concentrations exceeded those found in maternal plasma by three to sevenfold (37).
Cocaine and several of its metabolites have been detected in breast milk. The parent drug, which is the predominant analyte in breast milk, was as high as 12 mg/L in one study of six women who used cocaine (38). Intoxication of breast-fed infants by cocaine-abusing mothers has been reported (39). Despite the fact that as many as 34% of pregnant women are reported to have used marijuana, the effect of postnatal drug exposure is not completely understood. The primary active ingredient, -9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is lipophilic and readily transfers into the milk where it may accumulate.
Maternal ingested methadone, body fluid methadone, and the neonatal withdrawal syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;129(4):417–24. 20. Kreek MJ, Schecter A, Gutjahr CL, Bowen D, Field F, Queenan J, Merkatz I. Analyses of methadone and other drugs in maternal and neonatal body fluids: use in evaluation of symptoms in a neonate of mother maintained on methadone. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1974;1(3):409–19. 21. Anderson PO. Drug use during breast-feeding. Clin Pharm. 1991;10(8):594–624. 22. Robieux I, Koren G, Vandenbergh H, Schneiderman J.