By T. & S Kitchen
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We hope that readers will share our view that these chapters are about things that really do matter. The structure of this book The chapters that follow are derived from the approach that we have set out above: Part One: The theory Chapter 2 looks at the ‘classical’ theories of place-based crime prevention. By contrast, Chapter 3 looks at some emerging phenomena which could be seen as offering some signiﬁcant challenges to the classical theories: space syntax, new urbanism, the phenomenon of gated communities and the growth of premises liability issues.
Rather, Jeffrey proposed a crime prevention model based on moulding reward and punishment stimulations. Since the physical environment provided pleasurable or painful feedback to individuals such that they learned to change their behaviour to maximise or minimise pleasure or pain as the case might be, changes to the environment therefore held the key to real crime prevention, inasmuch as it could be modiﬁed to reward (or punish) offending behaviour. Moreover, each individual reacted and learned differently, so that general assumptions about human reactions were not necessarily valid, in his view.
This place- and setting-based focus is the basis for the four major theories that we discuss below: defensible space, crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), situational crime prevention and environmental criminology. Strategies budding out of these theories have been adopted by government agencies across the developed world as part of the growing reliance on evidence-based policy making and practice. , 1997). Many of the applications have come to inform and guide crime prevention and security policy and practice across a wide range of land use categories, infrastructure, and building and estate development practices.