By Edward Waltz, Michael Bennett
This day, greater than ever, using denial and deception (D&D) is getting used to atone for an opponent's army superiority, to acquire or strengthen guns of mass destruction, and to violate overseas agreements and sanctions. even supposing the ancient literature at the use of strategic deception is extensively to be had, technical assurance of the topic is scattered in hard-to-find and out-of-print resources. this is often the 1st technical quantity to supply a present, complete and systematic assessment of the techniques and strategies that underlie strategic deception and, extra importantly, to supply an in-depth figuring out of counterdeception.
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Extra info for Counterdeception Principles and Applications for National Security
Maxims 1 and 2 will be addressed in Chapter 3 since they are related more towards why human beings are vulnerable to deception. The basis for the other Maxim 1: Magruder’s Principle It is easier to for the target to maintain a preexisting belief even if presented with information that would be expected to change that belief. Maxim 2: Limitations to human information processing Several limitations to human information processing can be exploited in the design of deception schemes, including the law of small numbers and susceptibility to conditioning.
Maxim 4: Jones’ Lemma Deception becomes more difficult as the number of channels available to the target increases. Nevertheless, within limits, the greater the number of channels that are controlled by the deceiver, the greater the likelihood that the deception will be believed. Maxim 5: A choice among types of deception Where possible the objective of the deception planner should be to reduce the ambiguity in the mind of the target in order to make the target more certain of a particular falsehood rather than less certain of the truth.
Third, they formalize the concept of alternate objectives with their observation that this concept consists of two categories: the A-Type, ambiguity producing, type of deceptions and the M-Type, or misleading, deceptions. Finally, they introduce simple, systems-based models of the deception process that emphasize the flow of signals between the deceiver and the target through communications channels. They explicitly cite the important role that feedback from the target plays in the process. Daniel and Herbig’s paper represents an important step towards formalizing the study of deception.