By Eva Herschinger
Developing international Enemies asks how and why particular interpretations of overseas terrorism and drug abuse became hegemonic on the worldwide point. The ebook analyses the foreign discourses on terrorism and drug prohibition and compares efforts to counter either, not just from a modern but additionally from a old viewpoint.
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Extra resources for Constructing Global Enemies: Hegemony and Identity in International Discourses on Terrorism and Drug Prohibition
Hence, discourses refer to systems of meaningful practices that form the identities Hegemony and identity in security discourses 15 of subjects and objects; they relate elements to establish meaning, since elements need to be set in relation to other elements to acquire meaning. This is implied when the meaning of a terrorist can only be established by juxtaposing it to a non-terrorist. Discursive structures are not cognitive entities, they are articulatory practices, which constitute and organize social relations.
Identity is constituted against an Other and discourses articulating identity articulate a Self against a series of Others. Identity is unimaginable without a difference. ‘There is no way that a particular group living in a wider community can live a monadic existence – on the contrary, part of the definition of its own identity is the construction of a complex and elaborated system of relations with other groups’ (Laclau 1995: 147). Thus, ‘I cannot be myself if there is not you from which I am different’; Germany cannot be Germany without France or the United States from which it is different and ‘a community of liberal democracies’ cannot be democratic if there are not non-democratic communities: our identities are radically interdependent (Campbell 1993: 95).
The same is true for Campbell. Although Campbell has often been cited as arguing in favour of a simple Self-Other duality (as his first quotations above imply), he stresses that foreign policy as national security discourse ‘implicated in all confrontations between a self and other, embraces both positive and negative valences’ and that the ‘representation of difference does not functionally necessitate a negative figuration [. ]’ (Campbell 1998b: 73, 88 emphasis added). 13 A more nuanced judgement is possible, instead of drawing hasty conclusions that, first, ‘one of the most influential studies of IR poststructuralism’ is deficient in this respect, and, second, that IR poststructuralism in general is ill-equipped to look for, and find, polarities containing more than two poles, overlapping identities, partial compatibilities though all these are theoretical possibilities and can be found in practice and are indeed the foundation on which security cooperation is built.