By Gérard Blanchet, Bertrand Dupouy
This booklet lays out the ideas essential to know the way a working laptop or computer works.
For purposes of readability, the authors have intentionally selected examples that practice to machines from all eras, with no need to water down the contents of the publication. This selection is helping to teach how concepts, thoughts and performances have developed because the first computers.
The e-book is split into 5 components. the 1st 4, that are of accelerating hassle, are the center of the ebook: “Elements of a simple Architecture”, “Programming version and Operation”, “Memory Hierarchy”, “Parallelism and function Enhancement”. the ultimate half offers tricks and recommendations to the routines within the publication in addition to appendices. The reader may well strategy every one half independently according to their previous wisdom and pursuits.
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Extra info for Computer Architecture
Certain codes are reserved for speciﬁc uses: control of the display, managing data ﬂow for communication between machines, etc. 10). The Representation of Information Least signiﬁcant↓ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 0 NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI Most signiﬁcant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DLE 0 P ‘ p DC1 ! 1 A Q a q DC2 2 B R b r DC3 3 C S c s DC4 4 D T d t NAK % 5 E U e u SYN & 6 F V f v ETB 7 G W g w CAN ( 8 H X h x EM ) 9 I Y i y SUB * : J Z j z ESC + ; K k FS , < L l GS - = M m RS .
13). 13. Decoder/sequencer The speed of this clock determines the speed of the processor, and more generally, of the computer, if the elements surrounding the processor can keep up the pace. 2 GHz. This speciﬁcation is an indication of the performance of the processor, not of the machine. 5. The address calculation unit Calculating addresses requires an arithmetic unit. The calculation can be performed by the ALU, as was the case in certain ﬁrst generation microprocessors. 30 Computer Architecture This method has the advantage of reducing the number of components in the central processing unit.
2. Carrying out the instructions The functional units in charge of carrying out a program are the automaton and the calculator: – the automaton, or control unit, is in command of all the operations; – the module tasked with the calculation part will be referred as the processing unit. Together, these two modules make up the processor, the “intelligent” part of the machine. The basic operations performed by the computer are known as instructions. 13). Every action carried out by the computing machine corresponds to the execution of a program.