By Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratynski, Wladyslaw Bugala
This is a concise and complete evaluation of the biology, ecology, and administration of Norway spruce. Written through 25 specialists within the box, and richly illustrated, it integrates vintage and modern literature. greater than 2000 works are mentioned within the textual content, which highlights uncomplicated examine and forestry practices in vital and jap Europe. the massive diversity of issues coated contains the species’ morphology, its body structure and food, and its ecology.
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Additional resources for Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce (Forestry Sciences)
Cell layers in the different zones changes during shoot development. The number of vertical files of cells in the pith meristem also depends on stem vigor. For example, the width of the pith meristem decreases during shoot growth and with increasing branch order. The organization of the meristem tissues in the spruce shoot apex typical for a mature plant is achieved in seedlings as young as 30-days old (GREGORY and ROMBERGER 1972). Lateral bud primordia arise in the axils of the elongating needles in late April, just when the apical meristem of the mother shoot has initiated bud scales for the following year’s bud (HEJNOWICZ and OBARSKA 1995).
Neoveitchii MAST. P. purpurea MAST. P. retroflexa MAST. P. wilsonii MAST. Central Asia (Himalayas) P. ) HENRY P. A. MEY. P. ) BOISS. Caucasus P. ) LINK species reported from eastern and central Asia have accepted taxonomic ranks (SCHMIDT-VOGT 1977; FARJON 1990, 2001). Many of these taxa have restricted and geographically isolated ranges. Several are distributed in mountains and occur at the altitudes of 1400–3600 m and are important species in the local forest plant communities. In central Asia the genus Picea is represented by a few montane species.
Subsequent phellogen cells arise in the deeper layers of secondary phloem. The periderm is layered and comprised of sclerified, spongy, and phlobaphene cork layers. Four or more layers of sclerified cork cells alternate with those of the other cork layers and indicate seasonal growth increments. Phelloderm is comprised of two to three layers of parenchyma cells. As a tree grows, the number of cork cells decreases. In roots the spongy and sclerified phellem of the periderm are each comprised of one layer of cells.