By edited by J.S. Bhatti ... [et al.].
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Additional resources for Biodiesel Handbook The
Alcohol, catalyst, and oil are combined in a reactor and agitated for ~1 h at 60°C. Smaller plants often use batch reactors (43) but most larger plants (>4 million L/yr) use continuous flow processes involving continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) or plug flow reactors (44). The reaction is sometimes done in two steps in which ~80% of the alcohol and catalyst is added to the oil in a first-stage CSTR. Then, the product stream from this reactor goes through a glycerol removal step before entering a second CSTR.
55: 145–152 (1996). 42. M. Vargas, and U. Schuchardt, Alkylguanidine-Catalyzed Heterogeneous Transesterification of Soybean Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76: 1207–1210 (1999). 43. W. F. S. Patent 6,127,560 (2000). 44. , G. Blasey, B. Gutsche, L. Jeromin, J. Rigal, R. Armengand, and B. S. Patent 5,514,820 (1996). 45. S. Patent 5,399,731 (1995). 1(Biodiesel)(26-41)(Final) 6/6/05 3:39 PM Page 41 46. , and K. P. Overend and E. Chornet, Oakland, CA, 1999. 47. , and D. Kusdiana, Biodiesel Fuel from Rapeseed Oil as Prepared in Supercritical Methanol, Fuel 80: 225–231 (2001).
These two items are largely housekeeping issues for biodiesel. Water can be present in two forms, either as dissolved water or as suspended water droplets. Although biodiesel is generally insoluble in water, it actually takes up considerably more water than petrodiesel fuel. Biodiesel can contain as much as 1500 ppm of dissolved water, whereas diesel fuel usually takes up only ~50 ppm (59). The standards for diesel fuel (ASTM D 975) and biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) both limit the amount of water to 500 ppm.