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Additional resources for Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle [Comp Anal Chem Vol 50]
California regulators, for example, are becoming more cognizant of the individually minuscule but significant combined effects of the chemicals released by consumerism . Finally, with regard to consumer use, PCPs can also serve as significant sources for conventional pollutants. Obvious examples include: phthalates (especially diethyl and dibutyl), solvents, dyes, and parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid alkyl esters), all of which are commonly used in dermal products; alkylphenolic surfactants (major ingredients in shampoos and soaps); pesticides (some of which are used as PPCPs); lead (Pb) and other metals, which can comprise significant percentages by weight of various Ayurveda and folk remedies.
Pharmaceuticals in the environment continual persistence (noted by Daughton and Ternes , and later referred to as ‘‘pseudo-persistence’’ by Daughton , because of their continual introduction via effluents from sewage treatment facilities and from septic systems, poses two immediate concerns. First, with respect to ecological integrity, the potential for adverse effects on biota is largely unknown, especially for aquatic life, and secondarily for those organisms that are part of the food chain involving sewage-amended land.
Once released to the environment, PPCPs (like other pollutants) can take up residence in ‘‘storage reservoirs,’’ which can be viewed as secondary sources for further releases; examples are residues that have been concentrated by sorption to sediment, biosolids, or biota. Consumer activities, however, have only recently been recognized as a potentially major, long-standing source of uncontrolled non-point pollution. G. Daughton Fig. 1. Origins and fate of PPCPs in the environment. NOTE: Whatever format and resolution is best suited for publication will be provided on request.