By Victor Kaptelinin, Bonnie A. Nardi
Task idea -- a conceptual framework initially built by means of Aleksei Leontiev -- has its roots within the socio-cultural culture in Russian psychology. The foundational inspiration of the speculation is human task, that is understood as useful, mediated, and transformative interplay among people and the area. because the early Nineties, job idea has been a visual landmark within the theoretical panorama of Human-Computer interplay (HCI). in addition to another frameworks, equivalent to allotted cognition and phenomenology, it confirmed itself as a number one post-cognitivist procedure in HCI and interplay layout. during this ebook we talk about the conceptual foundations of job idea and its contribution to HCI research.
After making the case for concept in HCI and in short discussing the contribution of task thought to the sphere (Chapter One) we introduce the historic roots, major rules, and rules of task thought (Chapter Two). After that we current in-depth analyses of 3 concerns which we think of of precise value to present advancements in HCI and interplay layout, specifically: enterprise (Chapter Three), adventure (Chapter Four), and activity-centric computing (Chapter Five). We finish the e-book with reflections on demanding situations and customers for extra improvement of job thought in HCI (Chapter Six).
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Extra info for Activity Theory in HCI: Fundamentals and Reflections
Leontiev extends and develops the original scope of Rubinshtein’s principle of “unity and inseparability of consciousness and activity,” in three respects. First, Leontiev states that psychological studies should not focus 20 2. BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF ACTIVITY THEORY only on the “psychological aspect or facet of activity” (as suggested by Rubinshtein), such as the relationship between activity and subjective experiences. Instead, he maintained that the relevance of activity to psychology is of a more general nature: activity is of fundamental importance to psychology because of its special function, “the function of placing the subject in the objective reality and transforming this reality into a form of subjectivity” (Leontiev, 1975, our translation).
The motive is the object that the subject ultimately needs to attain. For instance, in some cultural contexts people reaching a certain age need to learn how to drive a car (and get a driver’s license); it is a general prerequisite of being a fully functional member of society. Learning how to drive a car is an activity organized as a multilayer system of sub-units directed at getting a driver’s license. Actions are conscious processes directed at goals which must be undertaken to fulfill the object.
We theorize different kinds of entities that can be agents, as well as the possibility of delegating agency. We consider several dimensions as a basis for categorizing agents more flexibly. We argue that under varying circumstances, different kinds of agents may exhibit similar agencies. 1 first makes a distinction between agents that are living or non-living. In Chapter 2 we established that not any entity is a subject. A subject lives in the world and has needs. Non-living things do not have needs.